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  • Istvan_jan20thumb
    By Istvan Novak

    Why 2-Port Low-Impedance Measurements Still Matter

    Measuring small resistance values is not trivial, but since 1861, when Lord Kelvin invented the Kelvin bridge,1 we at least have a solution for measuring very low DC resistances: the four-wire Kelvin connection (see Figure 1). We measure the resistance by sending a known current through the resistor and measure the voltage drop using separate wires.

  • 115-thumb
    By Sherman Shan Chen

    Looking Under the Hood at High Speed Signaling Specs

    Want to know more about the impedance and the encoding schemes adopted by prevailing high-speed I/O (HSIO) standards including PCIe, USB, Thunderbolt, and Ethernet? By looking back at the history of standards, some interesting trends and possible future directions are revealed.

  • Ta-thumb-1022
    By Thomas Landinger

    Battery Characterization for High Speed Signaling

    The complex impedance value over frequency for an electric vehicle’s battery cell is a good measure of the internal cell temperature, the state of charge (SoC), and the state of health. Moreover, comparing the battery stack impedance with the single cell impedances can reveal upcoming high contact resistances. Read on for the details of how to do it.

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