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  • 1704 thumb
    By Douglas Brooks

    How Do Traces Fuse (Melt)?

    What happens when you apply current to a trace? How long until disaster ensues? Douglas Brooks and Johannes Adam melted some boards, turned traces into flames, and applied some equations to shed some light on these questions.

  • Istvan jan20thumb
    By Istvan Novak

    Why 2-Port Low-Impedance Measurements Still Matter

    Measuring small resistance values is not trivial, but since 1861, when Lord Kelvin invented the Kelvin bridge,1 we at least have a solution for measuring very low DC resistances: the four-wire Kelvin connection (see Figure 1). We measure the resistance by sending a known current through the resistor and measure the voltage drop using separate wires.

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    By Sherman Shan Chen

    Looking Under the Hood at High Speed Signaling Specs

    Want to know more about the impedance and the encoding schemes adopted by prevailing high-speed I/O (HSIO) standards including PCIe, USB, Thunderbolt, and Ethernet? By looking back at the history of standards, some interesting trends and possible future directions are revealed.

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