Technical Articles

Modeling PCB Interconnects with Geometry and Material Parameters Variations for 56 Gbps Links

Measured S-parameters and cross-sections of PCB interconnects are used in this paper to identify the parameters of electrical models suitable for statistical analysis of interconnects with manufacturing variations. The constructed models reproduce observed effects of geometry and material properties variations on the loss, delay, and impedance, and they are suitable for yield analysis of interconnects with up to 56 Gbps signals.


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Why Are There So Many Standards?

There seems to be more standards every day, and some have rumored that there is a movement to merge or consolidate some existing standards. We will examine some of the standards and how they came to be. For starters, we will limit ourselves to three main types of standards in the industry: on-board or internal, input/output (I/O), and networking. I/O and networking are similar, but networking standards typically apply to longer distance links than I/O standards. There is, as often happens, overlap between these types, and some, such as PCI-express, have standards that apply to more than one of them.


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Silicon Photonics: Past, Present and Future

Optoelectronic industry designers have traditionally used discrete optical devices for transceiver designs. The process requires manual integration of discrete free-space optical components such as lasers, modulator, photo detectors, isolators, MUX/DE-MUX, lenses in the form of optical gold box sub-assemblies such as transmit optical sub-assembly (TOSA).


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Characterizing & Debugging EMI Issues for Wireless and IoT Products

An increasing number of manufacturers are adding or retrofitting wireless technology into new or existing products. These products typically include mobile, household, industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) devices. This transition towards “everything wireless” is in full swing, and with it comes problems with electromagnetic interference (EMI) from the product itself interfering with sensitive on-board cellular, GPS/GNSS, and Wi-Fi/Bluetooth receivers. Read on to find out what to do about it.


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