Technical Articles

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A Guide for Single-Ended to Mixed-Mode S-parameter Conversions

Signal integrity engineers almost always have to work with S-parameters. If you have not had to work with them yet, then chances are you will sometime in your career. As speed moves up in the double-digit GB/s regime, many industry standards are moving to serial link-based architectures and are using frequency domain compliance limits based on S-parameter measurements.


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A Simple Demonstration of Where Return Current Flows

This simple measurement demonstrates the most important principle in SI/PI and EMI: that the return current will flow in the path of lowest resistance below about 10 kHz. But above about 10 kHz, the return current will begin to redistribute in the return path to be adjacent to the signal conductor. Read on to learn more.


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Design for AMI: A New Integrated Workflow for Modeling 56G PAM4 SerDes Systems

In the future, the complexity of circuit implementation will increase dramatically and modeling of high-speed SerDes systems will continue to be a huge challenge. Modeling equalization circuit characteristics has become extremely important to ensure the success of the final platform implementation and provide a strong signal integrity design guide. This paper reviews the common challenges of converting an existing detailed architectural model to an IBIS-AMI model and some of the ways to address these challenges. It also includes an illustration of the workflow to model Intel’s 56G PAM4 SerDes.


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Convergence: Key to 224 Gbps PAM4 System Design

Convergence in technology is not a new idea. The concept infers that disparate technologies evolve to a closer association or integration over time. Convergence occurs when any number of technologies, such as micro twinax cables, ASIC design, interconnects, advanced IC packaging, and others combine to offer a unique system-level solution. Many see convergence as required for 224 Gbps PAM4 system performance. 


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Surface Scan on IC Level with High Resolution

The development of a low-noise emission PCBs is becoming more difficult because of higher integration densities, faster clock cycles, as well as integrating more radiators like wireless capabilities on to the IC. Based on these design challenges, it is essential to get all of the necessary information for the electric parts before they are placed on a customer’s PCB. Read on for advice on how to detect electromagnetic disturbances above ICs.


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The Truth About High-Speed Connector Design

It’s Not as Simple as Just Putting Metal and Plastic Together

In the high-speed connector design arena, there are two opposing ideas. For some people, if you simply put pieces of plastic and metal together, eventually you have a signal transmission. This process is very simple. On the other end of the spectrum, there is the idea that a solid connector design requires a deep understanding of electromagnetic theory, a wisdom only sorcerers and wizards possess.


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What Happens When Stripline Signals Cross Split Power Planes

Many claim that for stripline, it is ok to cross a split power plane, so long as the other adjacent reference plane is solid. Some others claim if there is an adjacent solid reference plane, less than 5mils away under the split, crosstalk will be mitigated. Read on to see an investigation into what really happens when stripline signals cross split power planes.


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