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Signal Integrity

Signal integrity covers all the issues about single ended and differential signal propagation from the transmitter to the receiver, including problems such as impedance control, discontinuities, reflections, topology, terminations, losses, ISI, jitter, eye diagrams, cross talk and ground bounce.

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  • 1704 thumb
    By Douglas Brooks

    How Do Traces Fuse (Melt)?

    What happens when you apply current to a trace? How long until disaster ensues? Douglas Brooks and Johannes Adam melted some boards, turned traces into flames, and applied some equations to shed some light on these questions.

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    By Sherman Shan Chen

    Looking Under the Hood at High Speed Signaling Specs

    Want to know more about the impedance and the encoding schemes adopted by prevailing high-speed I/O (HSIO) standards including PCIe, USB, Thunderbolt, and Ethernet? By looking back at the history of standards, some interesting trends and possible future directions are revealed.

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    By Douglas Brooks

    PCB Trace Current/Temperature Relationships and their Dependencies

    The ability to analyze and predict the current/temperature effects of isolated traces is helpful, but the actual temperature of a trace may be different because of uncertainties in the actual trace thickness or board material thermal conductivity coefficient. This article traces the effort to see what PCB board parameters have the most impact in determining trace temperatures, followed by a look at related PCB design considerations. Read on to learn more.

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