Items Tagged with 'impedance'

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Stackup Beware: Case Study of the Effects on Transmission Line Losses Due to Mixed Reference Plane Roughness

Designing the right PCB stackup can make or break product performance. If the product has circuitry that is impedance and transmission loss sensitive, then paying attention to conductor surface roughness is paramount. Sometimes, however, the roughness of adjacent reference plane(s) is overlooked. If the adjacent high-speed signal layer uses smoother copper than one or both reference planes, a higher insertion loss than expected for that layer will occur and possibly cause a product to fail compliance. So, how is this determined before finalizing the stackup? Read on to find out.


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Why You Need to Care About Both S and Z Parameters for PDN

I often get questions from my fellow design engineers from around the world asking why we should or should not use S parameters or Z parameters for power distribution network (PDN) designs or validation.  The truth is, we should be familiar with both, because depending on our design and validation tools, one or the other may be better suited for the task. Read on to find out why.


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Nine Essential Principles of Signal Integrity

SIJ technical editor Eric Bogatin notes that there are some problems that occur over and over again across product families and applications. They have a handful of essential principles at their underlying root cause. In this blog, he explains that if we really understand these underlying principles, the root cause of the problems will be more apparent and their solutions closer to implement.


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How to Stop Your Differential Vias from Leaking

Can common via structures transfer any data rate or are they limited with a defined bandwidth? If so, what limits its bandwidth? And what can be done when the bandwidth of the signal is greater than the bandwidth of the G-S-S-G structure? This technical feature from Dror Haviv explains.


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Build Your Own Low-Cost Power Rail Probe

Probing signals with a bandwidth below 100 MHz and voltage sensitivity above 100 mV is a no-brainer. Regardless of the type of signal or the source impedance, the venerable 10x passive probe is the answer. However, at bandwidths >100 MHz and with voltage sensitivity <100 mV, the 10x passive probe may not be the best option. In this article, SIJ technical editor Eric Bogatin introduces an easy-to-implement, low-cost alternative to the 10x passive probe specifically for power-rail measurements.


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