Items Tagged with 'crosstalk'


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An Alternative Approach to Analyzing Far-End Crosstalk

Reducing various types of noise such as reflections, mode-conversion, return-path bounce, and crosstalk becomes a serious challenge in signal integrity designs of high data-rate interfaces. In this article, Dror Haviv focuses on the analysis and properties of the FEXT, presenting an alternative way to analyze the FEXT and its properties using the superposition theory of the differential signal and the common signal.

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How Interconnects Work: Anatomy of Crosstalk

Crosstalk in PCB and packaging interconnects is arguably one of the most complicated phenomena that may cause signal degradation. Crosstalk effects can be treated statistically as a deterministic jitter with a bounded distribution, but the distribution is usually not known. A direct analysis of a worst-case crosstalk scenario may lead to a system overdesign. Neglecting it in design may cause a system failure that is difficult to find and fix later in a design process. Distortions caused by crosstalk cannot be corrected by signal conditioning techniques at a receiver side. It is very important to understand the sources of crosstalk, how to quantify it and how to mitigate it efficiently, as Yuriy Shlepnev demonstrates in this installation of the "How Interconnects Work" series.

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The Road from 1 Gbps-NRZ to 224 Gbps-PAM4

Semiconductor signal conditioning and signal recovery innovations have extended data rates by managing allowable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at progressively higher Nyquist frequencies. We have experienced how each successive signaling technology increases the electro-mechanical design resolution needed to address the channel physics while respecting the SNR of the chips. These movements throughout the years have provided a baseline of traditional design goals that lead us to better understand today’s 224 Gbps-PAM4 physical layer requirements.

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Noise in Traffic: Signal Emulation for Automotive Apps

DesignCon 2023 Best Paper Award Winner

Automotive applications present new challenges to high-speed serial technology. Asymmetric, multi-gigabit signaling between sensors, processors, and displays in the unique noise environments of both electric and internal combustion engine vehicles create new problems for signal and power integrity engineers. This paper introduces the signal impairments required for receiver testing in the emerging automotive standards like ASA, MIPI's A-PHY, Automotive Ethernet, and more. Standards specify different sources of noise in different ways, some in the form of time evolutions, others as spectra. This paper focuses on techniques for generating and calibrating each noise source while describing advanced de-embedding techniques and addressing test equipment limitations.

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Break Out Region Design by Inspection

Many systems fail to live up to expectations, frequently because of an implementation failure at the breakout region. In this blog, Travis Ellis, SI engineer at Samtec, discusses connector-to-board transitions and common impairments to their performance.

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Demodulating Spread Spectrum Clocks

Verifying the modulation profile of SSC has historically been challenging because it involves a frequency shift as a function of time. Mike Hertz explains that by tracking the frequency measurement parameter, an oscilloscope can display the SSC modulation profile as a function of frequency versus time. Read on to see how it’s done.

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