Items Tagged with 'Frequency'



Nine Essential Principles of Signal Integrity

SIJ technical editor Eric Bogatin notes that there are some problems that occur over and over again across product families and applications. They have a handful of essential principles at their underlying root cause. In this blog, he explains that if we really understand these underlying principles, the root cause of the problems will be more apparent and their solutions closer to implement.

Read More
4039 thumb

Outer Loop Equalization for PCIe Cross-Lane Transceiver Optimization

PCIe Gen4 Standards Margin-Assisted Outer-Layer Equalization for Cross-Lane Optimization in a 16GT/s PCIe Link

PCIe Gen4 enables new wave of innovation to guide inner-loop SerDes optimization assisted by outer-loop system optimization. This paper introduces an outer-layer equalization scheme for managing SerDes inner-layer equalization to optimize overall system-level aggregate performance.

Read More
4040 article thumb

A Causal Conductor Roughness Model and its Effect on Transmission Line Characteristics

In the GB/s regime, accurate modeling of insertion loss and phase delay is a precursor to successful high-speed serial link designs. We propose a causal (physically meaningful) form of the Hammerstad and Cannonball-Huray metal roughness frequency dependent complex correction factor. Compared to the widely used, non-causal form, it considerably increases the inductive component of internal metal impedance. Transmission lines simulated with a causal version demonstrate increased phase delay and characteristic impedance. By obtaining the dielectric and roughness parameters solely from manufacturers' data sheets, we validate the model through a detailed case study to test its accuracy.

Read More

Phase Noise Aliases as TIE Jitter

Here’s a look at how phase noise converts to time-interval error jitter, which is particularly important to those working on reference clocks for high-speed SERDES or sampling clocks. Read on to see how this can help debug systems to reduce sources of timing noise.

Read More