Items Tagged with 'PDN'

ARTICLES

Target Impedance Is Not Enough

Target impedance has become a standard tool when designing a power distribution network (PDN). It establishes a limit to the highest impedance the power rail on the die should see looking into the PDN. If the PDN impedance stays below this limit, even the worst-case transient current from the die will generate an acceptably low rail voltage noise.


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VRM Modeling: A Strategy to Survive the Collision of Three Worlds

This paper reviews four levels of VRM models that VRM designers, board level interconnect designers, semiconductor designers, and product managers often use to explore design tradeoffs throughout the PDN system. The choice of which one to use involves considering engineers’ levels of expertise and what problems they expect to analyze. Some tradeoffs and relative merits of the models are described.


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Overview and Comparison of Power Converter Stability Metrics

Power conversion circuits with control loop(s) are everywhere in electronic systems. We must establish stability and performance metrics for control loops and their circuits. However, generally accepted metrics may not be good enough. Is a crossover frequency with 45 degrees of phase margin and 10 dB of gain margin enough? How can we relate phase margin to peaking in the impedance profile and transient noise requirements? This article aims to answer these and other questions.


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Characterizing and Selecting the VRM

VRMs and VRM controllers are often selected based on size, efficiency, price, or a relationship with the manufacturer. This often leads to a poor VRM selection, requiring additional engineering resources, greater time to market, as well as, higher BOM costs to correct the deficiencies. In this article, we evaluate the choices, define some useful figures of merit, and provide specific selection suggestions.


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Target Impedance Limitations and Rogue Wave Assessments on PDN Performance

A common design technique for power distribution networks (PDN) is the determination of the peak distribution bus impedance that will assure that the voltage excursions on the power rail will be maintained within allowable limits, generally referred to as the target impedance. In theory, the allowable target impedance is determined by dividing the tolerable voltage excursion by the maximum change in load current.


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