Items Tagged with 'VRM'

ARTICLES

Why Full VRM Characterization is Essential

The voltage regulator module (VRM) contributes system level noise in several ways. Power integrity (PI) engineers tend to focus on transient voltage noise related to high-speed dynamic current. Many PI simulators ignore the VRM noise and use an ideal resistor and inductor model to represent the VRM. This overly simplistic approach misses many potential system level issues.


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VRM Modeling: A Strategy to Survive the Collision of Three Worlds

This paper reviews four levels of VRM models that VRM designers, board level interconnect designers, semiconductor designers, and product managers often use to explore design tradeoffs throughout the PDN system. The choice of which one to use involves considering engineers’ levels of expertise and what problems they expect to analyze. Some tradeoffs and relative merits of the models are described.


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Characterizing and Selecting the VRM

VRMs and VRM controllers are often selected based on size, efficiency, price, or a relationship with the manufacturer. This often leads to a poor VRM selection, requiring additional engineering resources, greater time to market, as well as, higher BOM costs to correct the deficiencies. In this article, we evaluate the choices, define some useful figures of merit, and provide specific selection suggestions.


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